The overall objective of this research is to identify vulnerable groups of households at risk, assess their needs for social protection and actual achievements of the current system of protection for them in Senegal. Vulnerability can be defined as exposure to a risk that the individual or household faces due to lack of production of goods, assets or social protection. The availability of access to, or control of, a means of production and assets is indeed a key determinant of income and the level of the individual and household consumption. Social protection is defined as the set of all measures that societies can employ to reduce burdens faced by households and individuals in relation to a defined set of risks and needs (ILO 2001). It is the set of public and private actions undertaken to respond to poverty, vulnerability and exposure to types of risks deemed unacceptable for individuals living in a given society (Conway et al. 2002).