Report on urban segregation, violence and poverty: Segregation and violence as dimensions of urban poverty
Little attention has been given to demographic dynamics and social risks related to the reproduction and consequences of poverty in the economic literature. This is important because demographic dynamics and social risks are keys to understand the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the consolidation of social and economic structures that consent the reproduction of the informal sector and segmented as well as discriminatory labour markets. Also little attention has been paid to the effects of changes in migration patterns in developing countries: urban-urban migration and the emergence of megacities, and the consolidation of intermediate cities as economic dynamic centres for rural dwellers (as well as centres to access secondary and postsecondary education for rural youth). (OECD (2002, 2009), Berdegué et al. (2012, 2010) Rodriguez 2008, Rodriguez, Arriagada 2004).
As a result the demographic transitions can stand as a great opportunity to economic growth, but only if everyone has a fair chance to access markets. If markets are segmented and low labor mobility is feasible, this opportunity may be lost. Instead, social risks as gang behavior and violence, together with low school quality and discrimination in labor markets may lead to worsening socio economic conditions for poor (and non/poor) people. (Lee 2003, Peng 2005, Gros 2005, Komine&Kabe 2005).
At the same time the poverty experience is not the same in megacities as compared to intermediate cities and rural areas. Thus, moving out of poverty seems to be remarkably different in each context. Fighting poverty is not just about improving the quality of dwellings, challenges are different.
It is also important to incorporate other dimensions of the urban experience. In spite of economic linkages between the centers, residential segregation remains and stands out as a key factor in perpetuating intergenerational poverty traps (Rodriguez&Arriagada 2004).Residential segregation makes evident social risk factors such as violence (both at the family and at the community levels), gang behavior in young populations, low school quality
Our academic contributions will also help to address policies in a different way. The policy challenges to improved access and profitable connections to markets are quite different in urban and rural areas.In urban areas, markets are physically close to poor people, but those markets tend to be segmented.Informality prevails in low income metropolitan segments and both segmentation and discrimination in labor markets tend to be the norm (Ñopo&Chong 2010, Moreno et al.2011, Atal et al. 2009, Maloney 1999). In rural areas the primary challenges rest on providing infrastructure and information to the population, as well as skills to reach and interact in such market environments where usually cultural background is different (Berdegué et al. (2011, 2012).
Using different case studies this task 6.4 adresseses all these issues: Rural and urban poverty (India), poverty reduction processes in Brasil as well as the consequences of poverty in urban spatially segregated contexts (Peru and Mexico)