Task 9.2 summarizes the impacts that demographic changes in the age structure can have on the economic outcomes, that is, on the reduction of poverty. The analyses are focused on the developing regions, with special attention to Africa, highlighting those factors that will permit the area to reap from a demographic gift. The investigation is carried out through two different approaches: from the macro and micro perspectives. The results obtained, under both viewpoints, manifest the importance of accelerating the process of demographic transition by further reducing the fertility and mortality levels. In fact, in order to benefit from a demographic dividend and thus increase the growth in GDP per capita, efforts are required in terms of the increase in human capital accumulation, improvement of child and adult health status, strengthening of the female labor force participation (which is already high in Sub-Saharan Africa) and gender equity in general, and enhancement in the quality and effectiveness of governance and the institutional environment.