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D 8.3 The Challenges faced by Young Democracies: Clientelism, Patronage, Vote Buying

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The democratic process through the development of democratic institutions and free and fair elections is often obstructed by remnants of the past authoritarian systems. Focusing on case studies, cross-country analyses and comparative studies, we identify some important issues: clientelism, corruption, fraud, vote-buying practises. Research by the CDD (Ghana), the SALDRU (South-Africa) and the UFRJ (Brazil) give an overview of these challenges, mainly by conducting surveys on specific topics dealing with the perception of the population towards condemnable practices or misallocation of public goods.