This task contains studies pertaining to the intersection of poverty with social identities, and in particular the role of governance and political factors. The study “Do Gender, Caste and Political Affiliation Impact Public Accountability and the Quality of Poverty Alleviation Programmes? Evidence from Andhra Pradesh, India” identifies the impact of gender, caste and political affiliation on the governance of a large poverty alleviation programme in India in a context where local people are in a position to closely monitor the actual against the prescribed allocation of public funds. Using primary and secondary data on elections to the three-tier panchayat or local government (at the district, block and village), gender, political party affiliation and caste of the contestants together with social audit reports, the paper seeks to identify the factors that influence the quality of implementation of a large public employment guarantee program in India. Another study “Migration and local governance” focuses on Mali and Senegal in order to assess the contribution of migration on local governance. For the Malian case study, quantitative survey is coupled with ethnographic analyses, whereas only ethnographic investigation is implemented in Senegal. The study will analyse electoral results of the next Malian presidential and parliamentary elections (participation rates, positioning of migrants and their family in the electoral list). The plan is to implement an experimental design applied to Mali to explore the democratic transfer of norms by migrants through a randomized field experiment during the forthcoming national/local elections in Mali (in relation with 5.3). Another study on “Localized Power Structures, Conflict and Poverty” measures the degree of interdependence and direction of causality between the emergence of left-wing extremist power in parts of India during the last decade and the availability of publicly provided goods and services in such regions. The programme analyses the role of networks and elite capture of village structures and how the interaction of these factors impacts the availability of public goods. The programme on “the contribution of decentralised management of local natural resources” is a quantitative analysis applied to the Himalaya region (Nepal and India). This programme deals with the role of collective action to improve the management of village-level natural resources. More precisely, the question is whether and to what extent management of village forests by local councils has improved forest conservation in India (Himachal Pradesh) and Nepal. Complete data are available regarding the first of these two countries, and data will become available for the second countries during the coming years. A first series of analyses has already been conducted based on the Indian data and seem to suggest that panchayaths are not significantly more effective than state forest staff in conserving their forests, yet they are certainly not worse performing. This requires further analysis and confirmation in the light of the Nepalese experience, which has lasted longer than the Indian one. The programme on “How civil and political movements influence the development of urbanization”, for instance, the demands for rights and justice in specific urban contexts, the idea of Rights to the City. This programme is a comparison between India and Brazil. It highlights the interaction between stakeholders in both markets and government at the local level.