STORY HIGHLIGHTS• Nearly 40 countries have enough geothermal potential to meet a significant proportion of their electricity needs.
Over a thousand years ago, the Norse settler Ingólfur Arnarson named the capital of Iceland Reykjavik, or “smoky bay” in English, for what he thought was smoke rising from the ground. In fact, it was steam rising from hot springs. A millennium later, Iceland is still tapping this resource. Over 25% of Iceland's electricity comes from geothermal energy. Nine out of ten buildings are heated by waste heat from geothermal power plants.
Iceland is one of about 40 countries with enough geothermal potential to meet a significant proportion of their energy needs. But global potential remains largely undeveloped. To date, geothermal electricity capacity has reached only 11 gigawatts worldwide – only 0.3% of total global power generation.
The main obstacle for geothermal projects has been the initial test drilling phase, which is expensive and risky. Proving the viability of a single steam field can cost US$15-25 million, and if a site has no potential, this investment is lost.
To change this picture, the World Bank is launching a Global Geothermal Development Plan to bring together donors and multilateral lenders around an investment plan to scale up geothermal power in the developing world. The Plan focuses on exploratory test drilling, with the goal of developing a pipeline of commercially-viable projects that are ready for private investment.
Geothermal energy could be a triple-win for developing countries: clean, reliable, locally-produced power. And once it is up and running, it is cheap and virtually endless. || Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Managing Director, The World Bank
Speaking at the Iceland Geothermal Conference in Reykjavik on March 6, World Bank Managing Director Sri Mulyani Indrawati called on donors, multilateral banks, governments and the private sector to join the Plan and bring what is now a marginal renewable energy source into the mainstream to deliver power to millions.
“Geothermal energy could be a triple-win for developing countries: clean, reliable, locally-produced power. And once it is up and running, it is cheap and virtually endless,” said Sri Mulyani Indrawati. “The World Bank Group, and many of our partners, support the goals of the Sustainable Energy for All initiative, led by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and our President Jim Yong Kim. Two of those goals are universal access to modern energy services, and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Geothermal energy will be a major step towards both.”
Many developing world regions are rich in geothermal resources, including East Africa, Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Andean region. Already, the World Bank and Iceland are working together under a “Geothermal Compact” to support surface exploration studies and technical assistance for countries in Africa’s Rift Valley—Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia are participating with Zambia expected to join soon.
The Global Geothermal Development Plan expands on previous efforts by its global scope, and its focus on test drilling. It will identify promising sites and leverage financing for exploratory drilling, to develop commercially viable projects. The Plan’s initial target is to mobilize US$500 million. Donors can participate by identifying viable projects, and through bilateral assistance, as well as by contributing to existing channels such as the Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) or the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The GGDP will be managed by the World Bank’s longstanding Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP).
The World Bank will convene donors later this year to discuss financing of specific geothermal projects under the plan. The Bank Group’s financing for geothermal development began in the 1970s and has increased from $73 million in 2007 to $336 million in 2012. It now represents almost 10 percent of the Bank’s total renewable energy lending.
Geothermal is also the energy source with the smallest land footprint per kilowatt hour, making it especially attractive in developing countries where population densities are high and land is at a premium.
“Until now, our work has been at the country and regional levels,” Sri Mulyani said. “These efforts are important, and should continue. But a global push is what is needed now. Only a global effort will put geothermal energy in its rightful place – as a primary energy source for many developing countries. Only a global effort will pool resources to spread the risk effectively. It will let us learn from each other, from our failures and successes, and apply that learning.”
The World Bank approved US$132 million in zero-interest financing for the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project to support economic development and significantly improve the electricity supply to homes and businesses.
STORY HIGHLIGHTS• Geothermal delivers carbon-free power in Kenya
Jackson Kiloku, a 26-year-old Masai who herds animals and raises vegetables, stood at the far end of Inkoiriento village, a panoply of wooden and rusted tin-roofed buildings in Kenya's Nakuru County, and pointed to cables in the sky. "I hope electricity will flow through them soon," he said. “Electricity will be good for our local school and good for our businesses.” Daniel Parsitau, a fellow villager added that electricity would make life at home easier as well.
Both look to Kenya's Olkaria geothermal plant, on the boundaries of Hell’s Gate National Park, to deliver this new electricity. Olkaria, which has received long-term support from the World Bank and other agencies, is part of Kenya’s plan to substantially increase the contribution of geothermal to the country’s energy mix.
Only 16% of Kenyans have access to electricity, but with evidence of abundant geothermal resources beneath the country’s share of East Africa’s Rift Valley, the government plans to double geothermal generation to bring electricity to villages like Inkoiriento. Already, geothermal—developed with $300 million in support from the World Bank since 1978 —delivers about 13% of Kenya’s electricity; the goal is to raise that proportion to close to 30% by 2020.
Hairdresser Elizabeth Kyalo and her assistant now use electric appliances to straighten, dye, and style their customers’ hair. Electric lighting allows them to stay open after dusk: “I have more business now and am able to pay for schooling of my kids,” said Elizabeth.
Getting access to electricity also improves safety for women in remote areas. Before Kola Division village got electricity, for example, resident Jossylyn Mutua was attacked by machete-wielding thieves who sliced her forehead and smashed her arms. She has since relocated to Nairobi but would consider moving back to her village now that it has electricity.
“Lighting has secured the area,” said Norman Mulei, a grocer, a few shops away. He and his sister run their grocery from 6 a.m. to 8 or 9 p.m. They feel that having electricity has made it safer for them to stay open at night.
Concerted global action key to providing access
It is relatively clean and non-polluting, and can provide constant power. || Pierre Audinet, Clean Energy Program Team Leader at the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP)
Geothermal is also delivering carbon-free access to electricity. “It is relatively clean and non-polluting, and can provide constant power,” says Pierre Audinet, Clean Energy Program Team Leader at the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). “For many developing countries, this is a potentially transformative resource.”
Getting to that transformation, however, will take concerted international action.
Many other countries share Kenya’s prospects. Geothermal resources are concentrated in regions of tectonic activity, from Africa’s Rift Valley, to Central America, to Southeast Asia. About 40 countries worldwide have geothermal resources that could meet a very significant portion of the national electricity demand.
The World Bank and ESMAP are preparing a Global Geothermal Development Plan to mobilize funding for geothermal development. This partnership with bilateral funding agencies and other multilateral banks will target regions of high potential and finance the test drilling phase, to trigger further private investment along other stages of the geothermal value chain. The goal is to boost geothermal electricity production capacity in low- and middle-income countries, and thereby deliver power to some of the 1.3 billion worldwide who remain without it.
World Bank support for scaling up geothermal
Supporting the scale-up of geothermal power in developing countries is among the Bank Group’s key commitments as part of the global Sustainable Energy for All initiative, which aims to achieve universal energy access, double the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and double the rate of improvement of energy efficiency, all by 2030. Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim recently joined with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to co-chair the advisory board that will provide strategic guidance to the Sustainable Energy for All initiative.
Because geothermal power projects require often extensive preliminary test drilling, they are more capital intensive than many other renewable energy projects. Significant investment is required before it becomes clear whether a site has the potential to recover the costs. Geothermal projects also have relatively long lead times from the start of exploration to power plant commissioning and the first revenues. But geothermal offers great promise, especially in East Africa, where the Rift Valley's geothermal potential could power up to 150 million households. This is why the Bank Group is working with Kenya to support geothermal development with concessional funding in the early stages.
World Bank Group support for geothermal development is growing, rising from $73 million in 2007 to $336 million in 2012. Geothermal now represents almost 10 percent of the Bank’s total renewable energy lending. The Global Geothermal Development Plan is expected to boost that support even further.
Work Programme for Grants 2015 of EU Delegation to China and Mongolia for Civil Society Organisations and Local Authorities (CSO-LA) in Development – Actions in Mongolia.
Methodology for evaluations of budget support operations at country level - The scope of the evaluation should be determined by the particular circumstances of the country and the time period to be evaluated. Ref. 1258.
10 December 2014 Kabul
The Deputy Ministry TVET of the Ministry of Education officially launched the TVET MIS (management information system for technical and vocational education and training) in Kabul on December 10th. Attended by the Acting Minister of Education, representatives of UNESCO, Director of EMIS (the Ministry of Education’s main MIS system), directors and heads of different units of DMTVET and representatives of development programs, the event highlighted the importance of this system for digitalizing and improving the quality of TVET data collection and analysis, and the enhancement this will provide to monitoring and evaluation capacity within the TVET sector in Afghanistan. More efficient data collection will mean policymakers are better equipped with accurate, reliable and up-to-date data on TVET, further strengthening their capacity to develop and implement informed and responsive policy for the sector. This new TVET MIS system will be based inside the Deputy Ministry TVET.
The development of this TVET MIS system has been supported through UNESCO’s CapEFA (Capacity Development for Education for All) program, since 2012. This program focuses on supporting those countries farthest from achieving the EFA goals to better enable their achievement of the EFA targets. H.E. Mr. Asif Nang, Acting Minister of Education, welcomed the technical support of UNESCO in establishment of the TVET MIS system. Highlighting the new system’s importance, he stated that, “for the first time, we are converting hand-papers into a digital and standard computerized system, which improves the reliability, efficiency, and provision of on time services and quality data for TVET-education…by establishing the new digital system we will have reliable and quality data information on TVET activities for better decision making.”
UNESCO will continue, through CapEFA, to support the TVET MIS system and the further development and improvement of its data collection and analysis capacity into 2015.
On 1 January 2015, the new List of Prohibited Substances and Methods and the Therapeutic Use Exemptions will become effective worldwide.
Following the required three months’ notice period and the UNESCO communication to all States Parties, the approved provisions are now integral parts of the Convention.
States Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport pledged to recognize a unified list of prohibited substances and methods in sport and therapeutic use exemptions set out in Appendix I and II of the Convention adopted by UNESCO in 2005. This explicit recognition marks the commitment of public authorities to provide a transparent framework for the integrity of sport to the sports movement and to protect athletes worldwide. It aims to support and regulate periodic changes initiated by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to provide oversight adapted to the fight against doping. It confirms therefore the List established by WADA for sports federations.
States Parties, in approving the amendments submitted by WADA, reinforce the process of harmonization and compliance in the fight against doping in sport on a global scale. This effort is crucial to identify scammers but especially to protect athletes with integrity, by promoting a transparent framework applicable for all.
As of 1 January 2015, the amendments approved by UNESCO normalize the changes systematically undertaken by WADA to adapt the fight against doping to current challenges. Prohibited substances and methods are constantly evolving. The use of certain substances by athletes causes increasingly complex metabolic changes requiring the need to adapt the answers triggered by the common action between UNESCO and WADA.
Under the coordination of these two agencies, Governments and sports federations ensure concerted and coordinated unification to safeguard transparency and integrity of sports worldwide.
Evaluation of the European Commission's cooperation with the Republic of Angola - The scope of the evaluation covers the cooperation strategy and its implementation in relation to the National Indicative Programme of EDF9 (including uncommitted balances from previous EDFs), and to contributions from thematic Budget Lines and other cooperation instruments. Ref. 1267.
The Annual Action Programme 2014 and 2015 part 1 in favour of Central Asia is constituted by the actions "Central Asia Research and Education Network 3 (CAREN3)" and "Investment Facility for Central Asia 2015 (IFCA)". The maximum contribution of the European Union is set at €30 000 000.
Ministers and heads of delegation attending the UN Climate Change Conference 2014 - COP20 - (1-12 December 2014, Lima, Peru) have adopted The Lima Ministerial Declaration on Education and Awareness-raising.
This Declaration calls on governments to include climate change into school curricula and climate awareness into national development and climate change plans.
Marcin Korolec, President of COP 19/CMP 9 and Secretary of State, Ministry of the Environment, Poland, said that "this declaration is an important step towards bringing education back into the spotlight where it belongs".
The Declaration makes explicit reference to the importance of the UNESCO World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development held in Aichi-Nagoya, Japan, from 10 to 12 November 2014, "which called for urgent action to further strengthen and scale up education for sustainable development."
Thematic Evaluation of the European Commission support to Conflict Prevention and Peace Building - Preliminary study: scoping and mapping - Temporal scope, which will cover the period 2001-2008. Geographical scope, which will cover third countries with the exception of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and those covered by DG Enlargement. Ref. 1266.
This study has evaluated the General and Sector Budget Support operations undertaken in Tanzania from 2005/06 to 2011/12. These operations amount to a resource transfer of almost US$ 5,000 million - an annual average disbursement of US$ 694 million, some $16 per annum per head of the Tanzanian population, provided by 14 Development Partners.
Evaluation of the Commission's aid delivery through development banks and EIB - The scope of this evaluation was the channelling of funds through the World Bank and the European Investment Bank during the period 1999-2006. Ref. 1255.
Evaluation de la Coopération de la CE avec la République Centrafricaine - Le champ temporel de la présente évaluation est la période 1996-2007, soit la programmation et la mise en oeuvre des 8 et 9ème FED. Les termes de référence spécifient le champ thématique de la présente évaluation. Ref. 1263.
Evaluation de la Coopération de la CE avec la République du Tchad - Le champ de l’évaluation couvre de manière globale la stratégie de coopération de la Commission européenne sur les dix dernières années. Ref. 1260.
Commission Decision on the Annual Action Programme 2014 in favour of the Republic of Yemen to be financed from the general budget of the European Union.
The programme includes the following actions:
- Enhancing Rural Resilience in Yemen (ERRY)
- Enhancing rural resilience through the creation of a Community Health Workers Network.
Evaluation of the Commission's support to ASEAN - The legal basis for EC cooperation with ASEAN remains the Cooperation Agreement of 1980. In view of its limited scope and repeated efforts to expand cooperation, however, the de facto foundation for cooperation is the 2003 ASEAN Communication. Ref. 1262.